Pain in the arch of foot is very common. Each of your feet has three arches that help maintain its characteristic shape. There are two longitudinal arches, along with one transversal arch. These foot arches are formed by the bones in your tarsus and metatarsus, bound together by numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and the plantar fascia. Your foot arches help keep you stable while you stand and walk, absorb stress, and help your feet adapt to different surfaces.
Just like with any other part of your body, you can experience pain in the arch of your foot. This pain can vary in severity, and it can be caused by several different conditions. The main causes of pain in the arch of the foot are:
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The plantar fascia is a strong band of tissue that connects the front of your foot to your heel. The inflammation of this fascia can cause arch pain that worsens upon waking up, or after prolonged periods of standing or engaging in physical activity. Plantar fasciitis can usually be treated with rest, NSAIDs, and physical rehabilitation exercises. Making sure that you wear adequate footwear that support your feet properly is also important to relieve this cause of pain in the arch of your foot.
Overpronation of the foot
Overpronation is a defect in the biomechanics of your feet. When you overpronate, the outer edge of your foot touches the ground first, and your foot rolls inward as a consequence. This condition can cause pain in the arch of your foot over time, since the abnormal movement can damage muscle, tendons, and ligaments. Overpronation can also cause knee, hip, and back pain. Orthotics are a great way to treat overpronation.
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD)
This condition is also known as “adult-acquired flatfoot”. Your posterior tibial tendon is one of the main structures involved in supporting the arch of your foot; thus, any injury or inflammation that affects this tendon can cause arch pain. The pain caused by PTTD usually extends all the way from the arch of your foot to the back of your calf, where the tendon begins. Pain usually occurs during physical activity and improves when you rest.
Any injury to the bones in your feet can cause pain in the arch of the foot. These injuries can be acute, caused by a single traumatic event such as dropping a heavy object on your foot. They can also develop as a result of repetitive trauma, turning into a stress fracture.
People who suffer from this condition have abnormally high foot arches. The pain caused by cavus foot is usually felt while standing. This condition can also make your feet and ankles unstable.